Thursday, December 1, 2011

The Cold War




            COLD WAR

Yalta, February 4-11, 1945

       Big three
       Agree to a United Nations
       Soviets make clear that they will not leave Eastern Europe
       Germany divided into zones of occupation.
       Russia agrees to attack Japan.
       Establishes initial lines of cold war.

Germany surrenders, 1945

       Soviets take Berlin May 2
       Germany surrenders unconditionally May 7
       Roosevelt died April 12

A post-colonial moment


       British, French, German, Japanese and Italian empires are destroyed or weakened.
       U.S. and Soviet Union spheres of influence

National Security Act, 1947

       National Military Establishment
      Secretary of Defense
       Army
       Navy
       Air force
      Joint chiefs of staff made permanent
      CIA


Containment

       Long telegram, George Kennan, 1947
      Soviet Unions seeks to expand communism wherever it can
      U.S. must oppose communism wherever it can.

Marshall Plan, 1948-1951

       George C. Marshall, Secretary of State
      $13 billion in European reconstruction

Berlin airlift

       1948, Allied zones of occupation unified and become functional government
       Soviet union, in response to Marshall Plan and unification of Allied zones, blockaded West Berlin.
       U.S. responds with massive airlift.
       Soviet lift blockade after 10 months.
       1955, West Germany gained full sovereignty.

Communism in South Asia

       Chinese civil war won by communists in 1949.
       Communist principle of economic self-sufficiency
      Opposition to capitalist imperialism.
       1950, U.S. recognize French-supported emperor Bao Dai of Vietnam.
      Seeking friendly regime in Southeast Asia

Korea

       1945, Japanese withdraw from Korea
       1945, Soviet Union occupied North Korea (to 38th parallel)
       Americans occupy South Korea up to 38th parallel
       June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea
       Truman responds with force under the auspices of the UN rather than asking for a declaration of war

Korean conflict

       Un forces pushed to Puson
       MacArthur effects landing at Inchon while UN forces break out of Puson.
       Truman agrees with MacArthur to unify Korea, and UN troops push as far as the Yalu River
       Chinese “human wave” assault (260,000 soldiers) push UN forces below 38th parallel
       1953 truce divided Korea at the 38th parallel

Consequences of Korea

       Precedent of large-scale military conflict without congressional declaration of war.
       Truman, believing the Korean conflict was part of a global communist offensive, increased assistance to the French in Vietnam (Military Assistance Advisory Group).

Nationalism in Indochina       

       British Indochina independent
      India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaysia
       French retain Indochina (as do Dutch)
      Attempt to retake area abandoned by Japanese and held by local nationalists
      1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaims Democratic Republic of Vietnam with capital in Hanoi (North Vietnam).
       Received aid from U.S. against Japanese

First Indochina War

       1946, French recognize DRV as “free state” within French empire
       1949, French reverse themselves and reinstate emperor Bao Dai
       1949, communist china recognizes DRV
       1949, U.S. recognizes Bao Dai government

Dien Bien Phu

       DRV has support from China and Soviet Union
       Bao Dai from France and U.S.
       French are defeated at Dien Bien Phu

Geneva Accords

       Laos and Cambodia neutral
       Vietnam divided at 17th parallel.
       Elections in 1956

National Liberation Front

       premier Ngo Dinh Diem at U.S. request
      Supposed to institute Democratic reforms but doesn’t.
       Gets CIA and military aid
       Diem ousts Bao Dai and refuses to hold elections in 1956
       South Vietnamese guerillas (viet cong) begin resistance to Diem government.

Kennedy years

       U.S. military advisors increased from 2,000 to 16,000
       Oppressive Diem government creates more opposition in South Vietnam
       North Vietnam sends supplies to Viet Cong through Ho Chi Minh trail
       1963, Diem killed in coup led by generals.

Tonkin Gulf

       Lyndon Johnson did not believe Vietnam was worth fighting for or winnable, but he believed that perceived weakness in Vietnam would open his administration to criticism from hawks.
       Two American destroyers observing U.S. sponsored attack in North Vietnam.
      Johnson claimed that the destroyers were attacked.
      Later admitted the claim was probably bogus.
      Johnson interpreted the Tonkin Gulf Resolution as authorization to use unlimited military force in Vietnam.

U.S. combat forces arrive

       Johnson orders “Rolling Thunder” bombing of North Korea
       Airbase has to be protected by U.S. troops.
       Mission expands to “search and destroy” patrols.
       1965: 184,000 U.S. troops
       1966: 385,000
       1969: 542,000


Nixon in Vietnam

       Vietnamization
       Growing opposition at home.
       Gradual drawdown
       Expanded bombing
       Last soldiers evacuated in 1973



 




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